Sunan Ampel – Sunan Ampel is one of the trustees who preached in Java, precisely in the city of Surabaya. In his childhood he was named Sayyid Muhammad ‘Ali Rahmatullah, but after moving to East Java, the community called him Raden Rahmat or Sunan Ampel. He was born in Champa in 1401 AD.
The Da'wah of Sunan Ampel aims to improve the moral decadence (Kemerostoanmoral) of the community at that time. It was during this time that some of the surrounding residents who were also abangan communities were indeed many gamblers and followers of anismism and liked what they called cockfighting.
Da'wah of Raden Rahmat (Sunan Ampel) in Java
Sunan Ampel is someone who greatly contributed to the spread of Islam in the archipelago. On his way to Trowulan, the capital city of Majapahit, he stopped first in Palembang and Tuban to spread Islam in the region. Its presence is a turning point in the religious history of the Majapahit community from Hindus to Muslims.
Every guardian has a unique way to disseminate the teachings of Islam in Javanese land, including Sunan Ampel who has several unique methods to disseminate the teachings of Islam in Javanese land. Without it, perhaps the important stories of the journey of Islam in Java will never occur.
Sunan Ampel's Da'wah Trip
From Bukhara it was one of the areas in Samarqand, which had long been known as a large area of Islam which gave birth to several great ulama, such as Imam Bukhari. Besides Imam Bukhari from Samarqand, there was also a great scholar named Sheikh Jumadil Qubra.
Syekh Jamaluddin Qubra has a son named Maulana Malik Ibrahim (Sunan Gresik), because it comes from the crypt of the community calling it Sheikh Maulana Malik Ibrahim as-Samarqandi. At that time, Sheikh Maulan Malik Ibrahim was ordered by his father to preach to Asia.
With the order, then he was taken by the son-in-law by King Champa, who was then married to his daughter, Dwi Condrowulan. From his marriage, Raden Rahmat (Sunan Ampel) and Raden Rasyid Ali Murtdha (Raden Santri) were born. While Dewi Condrowulan's sister or Dewi Dwarawati was married by Prabu Brawijaya Majapahit.
Thus, Raden Rahmat and Raden Ali Murtadha are nephews of Queen Majapahit and are classified as royal sons or royal nobles, and at that time got the title Rahadian which means my lord, or called Raden. In addition, he has a strong position among the Majapahit nobles.
King Majapahit was very pleased to get a wife from Champa who had a beautiful face and attractive personality, so that the other wives were divorced by him, and given to dukes who were scattered throughout the archipelago. Majapahit Kingdom has been lived by Mahapatih Gajah Mada and Prabu Hayam Wuruk who at that time experienced a drastic decline.
The kingdom can be divided because of the civil war. In addition, many dukes are not loyal to the descendants of Prabu Hayam Wuruk, Prabu Brawijaya Kertabumi. Taxes and tribute never reached Majapahit, but were more often enjoyed by the dukes themselves, this made the prabu sad.
Especially with the bad habits of the nobles and those who like to party and gamble and get drunk. Prabu Barwijaya Majapahit is well aware that if this habit continues, the country or work will become weak. And if the work has lost power, the enemy easily enters and destroys the kingdom.
Because the wife of Prabu Brawijaya Majapahit was worried about her husband's condition, he gave advice to her husband, that he had a nephew who was an expert educating in terms of overcoming the deterioration of character named Raden Rahmat. And in 1443 AD, he came to Java to meet his aunt, Dwarawati.
The arrival of Raden Rahmat to Java was not alone, he was accompanied by his father Sykeh Jumadil Kubra and his brother Sayyid Ali Murtdha. Then they were separated in carrying out their mission of mission, of which Sheikh Jumadi Qubra was in Java, Sayyid Ali Murtadha was in Samudra Pasai and Raden Rahmat in Champa, South Vietman.
Then Raden Rahmat continued his journey to Majapahit, when he arrived there he was welcomed by his aunt and king. King Majapahit asked him to educate ordinary people and nobles to have a noble character, and at that time he agreed to the request of the king of Majapahit.
According to some history, he settled for a few days in Majaphit's palace, until he was betrothed to one of Majapahit's daughters, Dewi Condrowati. Thus it is stated that Raden Rahmat is also the son-in-law of the king of Majapahit or one of the princes (Rahadian) who later became better known as Raden Rahmat.
Wife and Son of Sunan Ampel
Raden Rahmat has two wives namely Dewi Condrowati or Nyai Ageng Manila who is the daughter of the duke of Tuban namely Arya Teja. From this marriage he has sons and daughters, Maulana Makhdum Ibarahim (Sunan Bonang), Raden Qasim (Sunan Derajat), Siti Syari'ah or Nyai Ageng Maloka, Siti Mutma'innah and Siti Hafsah.
While the second marriage with Dewi Karomah bint Ki Kembang Kuning. From this marriage he had the sons and daughters of Dewi Murtasiyah (wife of sunan Giri), Dewi Murtasimah (wife of Raden Fattah), Raden Husamuddin (Sunan Lamongan), Raden Zaenal Abidin (Sunan Demak), Pangeran Tumapel and Raden Faqih (Sunan Ampel 2) .
The Da'wah Method of Sunan Ampel
The method of da'wah carried out by Sunan Ampel is indeed very different from other guardians, the method of da'wah with the class community understands downwardly by renewal and approach, whereas when it reaches smart people and scholars with intellectual approach and logical reasoning.
Some of the other guardians used the da'wah method on an art and culture approach as a medium of preaching. However, Sunan Ampel prefers to use an intellectual approach by providing an understanding of intellectual discourse and intelligent discussion, critical and accepted by human reason.
Basically, cultural urgentity as an alternative media cannot be denied and forgotten, because history also proves that the cultural culture approach played by sunan Kalijaga has succeeded in making its own interests for the people, but the cultural culture approach is more relevant to the middle class.
Whereas for upper class intellectual objects, it is in the right value by using the path that is traveled by Sunan Ampel. Even though it seemed to be divided between the upper and lower classes of society, it could still be achieved because he was a da'i who risked his life to protect the Ummah.
In addition, he remains independent and consistent with his position as a scholar. Because indeed he never used any tools or media as his missionary vehicle. Nevertheless, this is the uniqueness of the da'wah method of Sunan Ampel. In addition, the method of preaching is known as “Moh Limo”.
The teachings of the Phenomenal Sunan Ampel
The Da'wah of Sunan Ampel's philosophy is to repair the damage to people's morality that occurred at that time, the da'wah brought by him known as Mohmo or Moh limo, meaning that he did not want to do the five things forbidden by religion. It seems like Moh Mabok, Moh Main, Moh Wadon, Moh Madat, Moh Maling.
Moh Mabok means that he does not want to get drunk by drinking khamr or liquor, Moh Main means that he does not want to play gambling, playing games, lottery etc., Moh Wadon means that he does not want to commit adultery, homosexuals, lesbians, Moha Madat means no want to use drugs, Moh Maling means you don't want to steal and the like.
With these teachings Prabu Brawijaya was very happy with the results of the education from Sunan Ampel. The king considered that the teachings of Islam were noble character, when Raden Rahmat announced his teachings were Islam, the King was not angry. But unfortunately, the King did not want to convert to Islam by reason of wanting to become the last Buddhist King in Majapahit.
At that time Raden Rahmat was also allowed to broadcast Islam in the Surabaya area even in the entire Majapahit kingdom, this is of course with the note that the people should not be forced, then Raden Rahmat explained that there was no compulsion at all in religion.
Ampeldenta Islamic Boarding School Founded by Sunan Ampel
On the determined day, Raden Rahmat's group departed to a Surabaya village which was later called Ampeldenta. The group went through the village of Krian-Wonokromo to enter the Yellow Flower. During the trip he also preached to the locals who he followed.
The method of preaching that was used at that time was quite unique, namely he made a fan that came from rattan wicker, the fan then he distributed to the local community for free, and the residents could exchange it with the creed sentence. The residents who received the fan were very happy.
In this way more people came to Raden Rahmat, and at that moment he introduced the beauty of Islam according to their level of understanding. He continued to do this until he entered the village of Kembang Kuning, and at that time, the village was still like a forest and a lot of swamps.
With the karomah Raden Rahmat, along with his entourage, then opened the forest, and built a mosque as a simple prayer place, now the mosque has been renovated into a large and good mosque, the mosque is named the Rahmat Kembang Kemuning Mosque.
At that place Raden Rahmat met and became acquainted with two community leaders namely Ki Waryo Sarojo and Ki Bang Kuning. Both of these figures and their families converted to Islam and became followers of Raden Rahmat. With the presence of these two figures, it is easier for Raden Rahmat to approach the community.
Especially to the people who still adhere to old beliefs, he did not immediately forbid them but gave a little by little understanding of the importance of the teachings of monotheism, if they had understood the teachings of tawhid, then naturally they would leave old beliefs that were in conflict with Islam.
When he arrived at his destination, the first thing he did was to build a mosque as a center of worship. And because he settled in Ampeldenta and became a ruler in the area, then he was known as Sunan Ampel. After that he also established pesantran as a place to educate noble sons.
Sunan Ampel As Sesupuh Wali Songo
Raden Rahmat is not a native of Java. After Sheikh Jumadil Kubra (his father) died, Sunan Ampel was appointed to be the elder guardian of Songo. As a Mufti or leader in the land of Java some students and their children become students. Some of his own sons were also guardians who were also included in the songo guardian.
With the appointment of Sunan Ampel as an elder, the other guardians were submissive and obedient to his words, which included his fatwa in deciding to trade with Majapahit. At that time, the younger guardians assessed that Sunan Ampel was too slow in giving advice to Raden Patah.
In the future, there are people who hate Islam by turning back the historical facts. They made fake writings stating that Majapahit had been attacked by the kingdom of Demak Bintaro whose king was the son of the king of Majapahit (Raden Patah) who was considered a son of lawlessness.
Though the fact of actual history is not so. If Demak did not immediately attack Majapahit, of course, the Portuguese would colonize Java far faster than the Dutch. After Majaphit fell the royal heritage in Boyong to Demak Bintaro. Including the crown, which was later broken by Raden as King Demak I.
Student of Sunan Ampel Student
The students of Sunan Ampel were among the nobility, Prince Majaphit and the common people, even some members of the Wali Songo were his students. The most famous student of Sunan Ampel is Mbah Sholeh, Mbah Sholeh is one of the most loved students of Ampel.
Why not, mbah Sholeh is one of the students who has extraordinary karomah and privileges. Accidentally Sunan Ampe issued a statement that Mbah Sholeh lived for 9 times. Mbah Sholeh himself was a sweeper at the Ampel mosque during his lifetime, and he was very perfectionist in cleaning the mosque.
So that no dust sticks to the floor of the mosque. When the mbah shah died the tomb was in front of the mosque, but when Mbah Sholeh died none of the santri were able to clean the mosque very cleanly like the mbah Sholeh. Then at that moment, said Sunan Ampel.
Said Sunan Ampel “if Mbah Sholeh is still alive this mosque must be clean”. then suddenly Mbah Sholeh was at the mosque's canopy sweeping the floor of the mosque. The whole floor was clean again, and people were amazed to see Mbah Sholeh live again.
A few months later, Mbah Sholeh died again, and repeated the recurrence of Sunan Ampel until repeatedly and eight graves. At the time of the tomb of Sholeh, there were eight Sunan Ampel died, and a few months later, Mbah Sholeh died following Sunan Ampel. The tomb of Sunan Ampel is adjacent to Sholeh's mbah which has 9 tombs.
The existence of a historical fact cannot be denied. And history cannot be forgotten. So, as a successor to existing history, it is fitting to emulate his struggle in disseminating the teachings of Islam well without any political interference to invite people to enter and understand the teachings of Islam.
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